Current Projects

  • Effects of Race, Caucasian vs. Chinese, on Immittance Audiometry and Wideband Reflectance
  • Wideband Reflectance in Adults with Surgically Confirmed Otosclerosis: Co-investigators: Dr. Brian David Westerberg,
    Dr. .Sipke Pijl (St. Paul’s Hospital); Karin Bork( M.Sc. Thesis student)
  • Advanced Middle Ear Analysis Techniques, multi-frequency tympanometry & wide band reflectance,
    for Diagnosis of Middle Ear Effusion: Collaborators: Dr. Frederick K. Kozak, Clinical Associate Professor,
    Head, Pediatric Otolarygology, BC Children’s Hospital; Dr. Brian David Westerberg , Clinical Assistant Professor,
    Rotary Hearing & ENT Clinic, Providence 2, St. Paul’s Hospital; Dr. Juan C. Ospina, Fellow, Pediatric Otolaryngology,
    BC Children’s Hospital
  • Advanced middle-ear analysis techniques, multi-frequency tympanometry & wide band reflectance, in Special Care Nursery
    (Funded by Hearing Foundation of Canada) co-investigators: Dr. David Stapells (UBC); Dr. Anne Synnes and Ms. Laurie Usher
    (BC Children’s Hospital)

    Advanced middle-ear analysis techniques

  • Multi-frequency Tympanometry (MFT): This is a pdf document that provides some basic information regarding this technique, its clinical application, and the choice of the probe tone frequency to use for different pathologies and age groups, specifically newborns. Simply click on the topic that you want:

Immittance Principles

Immittance in Newborns

  • Wide-band Reflectance:


  • University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine Start up Grant
  • The Hearing Foundation of Canada grant for “Investigating the mechano-acoustical properties of normal and diseased middle-ear in
    newborns”, Co-investigator: David Stapells
  • Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI): New opportunity Grant (infrastructure & Operating), for the project
    entitled “Otitis Media and Middle Ear Analysis in Newborns”
  • British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund (BCKDF) matching fund for CFI, for the project entitled “Otitis Media and Middle Ear
    Analysis in Newborns”


  • Beers, A., Shahnaz, N., Westerberg, B., & Kozak, F. (2010). Wideband Reflectance (WBR) in Normal Caucasian and Chinese school-aged Children and in Children with Otitis Media with Effusion (OME). Submitted to Ear and Hearing 31(2):221-33.
  • Bingham, K., Jenstad, L., & Shahnaz, N. (2009). Longitudinal changes in real-ear to coupler difference measurements in infants. The Journal of American Academy of Audiology (JAAA) 20(9):558-68.
  • Shahnaz, N., Bork, K., Polka, L., Longridge, N., Bell, D., Westerberg, B. (2009). Energy Reflectance and Tympanometry in Normal and Otosclerotic Ears. Ear and Hearing, 30; 219–233.
  • Shahnaz, N., Longridge, N., & Bell, D. (2009). Wideband energy reflectance patterns in preoperative and post-operative otosclerotic ears. International Journal of Audiology 48 (5); 240-247.
  • Shahnaz, N., & Bork, K. (2009). Comparison of Standard and Multi-Frequency Tympanometric Measures obtained with the Virtual 310 System and the Grason-Stadler Tympstar. Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology – Vol. 32, No. 4, 146-157.
  • Shahnaz, N., Miranda, T., Polka, L. (2008). Multi-frequency tympanometry in neonatal intensive care unit and well babies. Journal of American Academy of Audiology (JAAA). Volume 19, Number 5,  pp. 392-418(27)
  • Shahnaz, N. (2008). Wideband reflectance in neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of American Academy of Audiology (JAAA). Volume 19, Number 5,  pp. 419-429(11).
  • Shahnaz, N. (2008). MULTI-FREQUENCY IMPEDANCE AUDIOMETRY. Communiqué Volume 22, No. 3, 7-9.
  • Shahnaz, N. (2008). Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs) in Caucasian and Chinese Young Adults. International Journal of Audiology (IJA).47:76-83.
  • Shahnaz, N. (2007). Multi-frequency Tympanometry and Evidence-based Practice. American Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (ASHA) Division 6: Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnostics, 11(1), 2-12.
  • Shahnaz, N. & Bork, K. (2006). Wideband reflectance norms for Caucasian and Chinese young adults. Ear Hear. 27(6):774-88.
  • Shahnaz N, Davies D. (2006). Standard and multifrequency tympanometric norms for Caucasian and Chinese young adults. Ear Hear.;27(1):75-90.
  • Shahnaz, N. & Polka, L. (July/Aug 2002).  Distinguishing Normal from Otosclerotic Ears: The effect of probe tone frequency on Static Immittance, Journal of The American Academy of Audiology, 13 (7), 345-355.
  • Sutton A.; Gallagher, T.; Morford, J.; and Shahnaz, N. (2002).  Interpretation of Graphic Symbol Utterances, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18, 205-214.
  • Sutton A.; Gallagher, T.; Morford, J.; and Shahnaz, N. (Dec. 2000) Relative clause production using AAC systems. Applied Psycholinguistics 21(4), 473-486
  • Shahnaz, N., & Polka, L. (1997).  Standard and multifrequency tympanometry in normal and otosclerotic ears.  Ears & Hearing  , Vol.  18, 326-341.

CASLPA Workshop – Powerpoint Presentations